|Document revision date: 15 October 2001|
If you want to disable external authentication, then before starting the Advanced Server, define the SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON logical in SYSTARTUP_VMS.COM to a value of 0, as in the following example:
$ DEFINE/SYSTEM/EXECUTIVE SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON 0
For more information, refer to the OpenVMS Guide to System Security.
220.127.116.11 Bypassing External Authentication When the Network Is Down
External authentication cannot occur if a network connection is required and the network is down. However, as a temporary solution, privileged users can enter the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier after the OpenVMS user name at the login prompt, to specify local authentication. Be sure to specify the OpenVMS user name and password when using the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier.
Because using the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier effectively overrides the security policy established by the system manager, it is allowed only when the user's account has SYSPRV as an authorized privilege. This allows the system manager to gain access to the system when the network is down.
When Bit 1 is set in the SYS$SINGLE_SIGNON logical name, nonprivileged users who are normally externally authenticated can log in locally (the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier need not be specified).
For more information about the /LOCAL_PASSWORD qualifier for the login
command line, refer to the OpenVMS Guide to System Security.
18.104.22.168 Logging On to Externally Authenticated Accounts
OpenVMS accepts the user name in one of the following formats for user accounts set for external authentication:
The form of the user name string determines the order in which OpenVMS verifies the logon:
Because external authentication depends on host mapping information, it is important to set up user accounts and host mapping carefully. For example, if the same user name exists in the Advanced Server and OpenVMS, but they are not the same user, external authentication may not work as you expect.
In the following examples, you have Advanced Server running on OpenVMS node VMS1 in the domain SaleOffice, with network users Smith and J_Smith and OpenVMS users Smith and V_Smith:
$ ADMINISTER ADD HOSTMAP SMITH V_SMITH $ ADMINISTER ADD HOSTMAP J_SMITH SMITH
$ ADMINISTER ADD HOSTMAP SMITH V_SMITH
You can set up an OpenVMS account to be externally authenticated by a trusted domain in your network. To enable this feature, you must include the trusted domain name in the data field for the server configuration parameter HostMapDomains in LANMAN.INI. See Section 7.3, Using the LANMAN.INI File.
For example, if your OpenVMS system is in the SaleOffice domain, and this domain trusts the Marketing domain, set up OpenVMS user Jones to be externally authenticated by the Marketing domain as follows:
The local server's domain is the default domain for users when external authentication is established. If you want to change the default domain for users using external authentication, define the Advanced Server logical PWRK$ACME_DEFAULT_DOMAIN on the system as follows:
$ DEFINE/SYS/EXE PWRK$ACME_DEFAULT_DOMAIN domain_name
where domain_name is the name of the new default domain. After
defining this logical, if a user does not specify a domain name at
login, the system will use the specified default domain for external
22.214.171.124 Requirement for External Authentication Over DECnet-Plus
To allow users to be externally authenticated over DECnet-Plus for
OpenVMS, set the system parameter NET_CALLOUTS to 255. This enables
Advanced Server user ID mapping and authentication for network logins.
3.2 Managing Advanced Server Groups
Groups are collections of user accounts and other groups. When you add a user to a group, the user has all the rights and permissions granted to the group. This provides an easy way to grant common capabilities to sets of users. (For additional information about planning Advanced Server groups, refer to the Compaq Advanced Server for OpenVMS Concepts and Planning Guide.)
OpenVMS system groups are unrelated to Advanced Server domain groups.
You use groups to manage access to resources like directories, files, and printers. To do this, assign permissions to the resource, specifying the group names, and add the user accounts to the groups. To change the permissions for a group, add or remove the permissions on the resource for the group, rather than for each user. Or, if you need to give a user access to specific resources (for example, certain directories and files), add the user's account to the appropriate group rather than changing permissions on each individual resource. Maintaining permissions for a group is simpler than maintaining permissions for individual user accounts.
Every group is either a global group or a local group.
Table 3-3 summarizes how to organize local and global groups.
|Users and Needs||Appropriate Group To Use|
|User accounts from this domain requiring access to the servers and workstations of this domain or of trusting domains||Global group|
|User accounts from trusting domains requiring access to the servers of this domain||Local group|
|Global groups from this domain requiring access to the servers of this domain||Local group|
|Global groups from trusting domains requiring access to the servers of this domain||Local group|
The Advanced Server creates several built-in groups automatically during installation. Each built-in group has a unique set of access rights. To give one such set of access rights to a user account, add the user to the appropriate group. By default, all users belong to the built-in group Domain Users.
Table 3-4 lists the built-in groups, with their group type (global or local), and their default members.
|Group Name||Group Type||Description||Default Members|
|Account Operators||Local||Members can administer domain user and group accounts.||None|
|Administrators||Local||Members can fully administer the domain.||Administrator, Domain Admins|
|Backup Operators||Local||Members can bypass file security to back up files.||None|
|Domain Admins||Global||Designated administrators of the domain.||Administrator|
|Domain Guests||Global||All domain guests.||Guests|
|Domain Users||Global||All domain users.||Administrator, user accounts|
|Guests||Local||Users granted guest access to the domain.||Domain Guests|
|Print Operators||Local||Members can administer domain printers.||None|
|Server Operators||Local||Members can administer domain servers.||None|
|Users||Local||Ordinary users.||Domain Users|
To set up a new user group, use the ADD GROUP command. To create a local group, include the /LOCAL qualifier on the command line. For example, to add the local group MUNCHKINS, enter the following command. Note that the description of the group is enclosed in quotation marks. If you do not specify the group type, the default is to add the group as a global group.
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> ADD GROUP MUNCHKINS/DESCRIPTION="Oz local group"/LOCAL %PWRK-S-GROUPADD, group "MUNCHKINS" added to domain "LANDOFOZ" LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> SHOW GROUPS Groups in domain "LANDOFOZ": Group Name Type Description --------------------- ----------- ------------------------------------- Account Operators Local Members can administer domain user and group accounts Administrators Local Members can fully administer the domain Backup Operators Local Members can bypass file security to back up files DEVAS Global DEVIS Global Domain Admins Global Designated administrators of the domain Domain Guests Global All domain guests Domain Users Global All domain users Guests Local Users granted guest access to the domain MONKEYS Global Users in the Land of Oz MUNCHKINS Local Oz local group Print Operators Local Members can administer domain printers Replicator Local Supports file replication in a domain Server Operators Local Members can administer domain servers Users Local Ordinary users Total of 15 groups LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
You can add users to groups in any of the following ways:
Local groups can include users from domains other than the one currently being administered. To specify a user account from another domain, a trust relationship must be established that allows the domain being administered to trust the domain where the user account is defined.
To specify a user account or global group in a trusted domain, enter a
domain-qualified name (domain-name\member-name), such
as KANSAS\DOLE, where KANSAS is the name of the trusted domain, and
DOLE is the user or group name defined in the trusted domain. If you
omit a domain name, the user or group is assumed to be defined in the
domain being administered.
126.96.36.199 Adding Members to a New Group
To add members to a new group, include the /MEMBERS qualifier on the ADD GROUP command. For example, to add a new group MUNCHKINS and specify the group members SCARECROW and STRAWMAN, enter the following command:
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> ADD GROUP MUNCHKINS/MEMBERS=(SCARECROW,STRAWMAN) %PWRK-S-GROUPADD, group "MUNCHKINS" added to domain "LANDOFOZ" LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
To simplify creating a new group, you can use the COPY GROUP command to copy an existing group to the new group, with a new name, keeping the members and description from the previous group. For example, to form a new group called QUADLINGS from an existing group called MUNCHKINS, use the following command:
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> COPY GROUP MUNCHKINS QUADLINGS %PWRK-S-GROUPCOPY, group "MUNCHKINS" copied to "QUADLINGS" in domain "LANDOFOZ" LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
This command copies the description and group members from MUNCHKINS to the new group named QUADLINGS. You can display information about the new group using the SHOW GROUPS/FULL command. For example, the following command displays the type, description, and members of the QUADLINGS group:
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> SHOW GROUPS QUADLINGS/FULL Groups in domain "LANDOFOZ": Group Name Type Description ---------- ------ ----------------------------- QUADLINGS Local Oz local group Members: [US]LION,[US]SCARECROW Total of 1 group LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
You can change the membership or description of an existing group.
188.8.131.52 Adding a Member to an Existing Group
To add a member to an existing group, use the MODIFY GROUP command with the /ADD_MEMBERS qualifier. For example, to add the user LION to the group MONKEYS, enter the following command:
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> MODIFY GROUP MONKEYS/ADD_MEMBERS=LION %PWRK-S-GROUPMOD, group "MONKEYS" modified on domain "LANDOFOZ" LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> SHOW GROUP MONKEYS Groups in domain "LANDOFOZ": Group Name Full Name Type Description ---------- --------- ------- ------------------------ MONKEYS Global Winged monkeys Members: [US]LION Total of 1 group) LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
To remove a member from a group, use the MODIFY GROUP command with the /REMOVE_MEMBERS qualifier. For example, to remove SCARECROW from the group MUNCHKINS, enter the following command:
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> MODIFY GROUP MUNCHKINS/REMOVE_MEMBERS=SCARECROW %PWRK-S-GROUPMOD, group "MUNCHKINS" modified on domain "LANDOFOZ" LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
To change the group description, use the MODIFY GROUP/DESCRIPTION command, as in the following example:
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> MODIFY GROUP MUNCHKINS/DESCRIPTION="First Floor" %PWRK-S-GROUPMOD, group "MUNCHKINS" modified on domain "LANDOFOZ"
Deleting a group removes only that group; it does not delete user accounts or global groups that are members of the deleted group. You cannot recover a deleted group.
Internally, the Advanced Server recognizes every group by its security identifier (SID), which is used when assigning permissions to a resource. If you delete a group and then create another group with the same group name, the new group does not inherit access to any resources available to the old group because the groups have different SIDs. To delete a group, use the REMOVE GROUP command, as in the following example:
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> REMOVE GROUP QUADLINGS Each group is represented by a unique identifier which is independent of the group name. Once this group is deleted, even creating an identically named group in the future will not restore access to resources which currently name this group in the access control list. Remove "QUADLINGS" [YES or NO] (YES) : YES %PWRK-S-GROUPREM, group "QUADLINGS" removed from domain "LANDOFOZ" LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
The command deletes the group QUADLINGS from the LANDOFOZ domain.
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