|Document revision date: 30 March 2001|
file name: The unique name that identifies a file.
See also file extension.
file server: A system that enables a server to allow
access to its local resources.
frame: A packet of information transmitted as a single
unit. Every frame has the same basic organization and contains control
information, such as synchronizing characters, station address, and an
error-checking value, as well as a variable amount of data.
full name: A user's complete name, usually consisting
of the last name, first name, and middle initial. Under the Advanced
Server, the full name can be maintained as part of the information that
identifies and defines a user account. See also user
full synchronization: Domain synchronization in which
the primary domain controller replicates its domain databases (security
databases) in their entirety to the backup domain controllers. See
also domain synchronization and partial
global account: A normal user account in a user's home
domain. Most user accounts are global accounts. See also
local account and user account.
global group: A user group that can be employed to
define permissions and rights for accessing resources in its own domain
and in trusting domains. A global group can contain user accounts only
from its own domain. Global groups can become members of local groups.
Global groups are a mechanism for creating sets of users that are
available for use both in the domain where they are created and in
other domains. See also group and
group: A collection of user accounts that are called
members. The permissions and rights granted to a group are also granted
to its members, making groups a convenient way to grant common
capabilities to collections of user accounts. See also
global group and local group.
group memberships: The groups to which a user account
belongs. Permissions and rights granted to a group are also granted to
its members. In most cases, the actions a user can perform are
determined by the group memberships of the user account through which
the user logs on.
group name: A unique name identifying a local or
global group to the Advanced Server. A group's name cannot be identical
to any other group name or user name of its own domain or workstation.
See also group.
guest account: An account on a server that a user
without an individual user account can use to access the server's
hidden server: A server that is part of a domain, but
that does not appear in the list of servers.
hidden share: A share that is hidden from most network
users. Hidden shares include ADMIN$, IPC$, and disk administrative
shares. See also shared directory.
home directory: A directory that is accessible to a
user and that contains files and programs for the user. A home
directory can be assigned to an individual user or can be shared by
Host mapping: The mapping (association) of an OpenVMS
user account with an Advanced Server user account. When using external
authentication to log on to an OpenVMS account, the host mapping
determines the OpenVMS user name. See external
host system: A computer, such as an OpenVMS system,
that runs the server services.
import computers: In directory replication, the
servers or workstations that receive copies of the master set of
directories from an export server. See also directory
import path: In directory replication, the path to
which imported subdirectories, and the files in those subdirectories,
are stored on an import computer. See also directory
inherited permissions: Implicit permissions based on
permissions assigned to a parent directory. See also
Internet address: A 32-bit number identifying a host
connection on the Internet. An Internet address consists of a network
number and host number.
interprocess communications (IPC): Communication among
the component processes of a program, between different computers
running parts of a single program, or between two programs working
IPC$: An administrative resource that controls how
interprocess communications operate on servers. A server's IPC$ is
automatically shared and cannot be deleted. See also
ADMIN$ and C$.
ISO Latin-1: A character set, also called ISO-8859-1.
See also extended character sets.
keyword: On PATHWORKS V6 for OpenVMS (Advanced Server) only, a parameter name in
the LANMAN.INI file that, with an associated value, establishes some
aspect of server configuration.
LAN: Local area network. A self-contained network that
offers a high-speed, reliable communications channel. LANs span a
limited distance, such as a building or cluster of buildings, but can
be connected to WANs with bridge devices. Contrast with
LAN Manager: A Network Operating System (NOS) from
Microsoft that manages network tasks and coordinates communications
between clients and servers.
LANMAN.INI file: On PATHWORKS V6 for OpenVMS (Advanced Server) only, an
initialization file on each server and client. The values of the
keywords in this file determine the option settings for computers on
License Manager: The interface used to manage the
Advanced Server License Server. The License Manager provides the ability
to manage license groups, set alert levels, set logging levels for
licensing events, enable or disable the License Server, and revoke
License Manager Facility (LMF): The OpenVMS facility
that manages the product license database through a callable interface.
License Registrar: A component of the Advanced Server
licensing subsystem that runs on the same node as the file server and
validates whether a client is licensed to connect to the file server.
License Server: An Advanced Server software program that
performs license-related services, such as assigning and verifying
License Server state file: The database on the system
running the License Server. Includes client names, information about
the types and quantities of licenses available, and license group
list box: In a dialog box, a box that lists available
choices such as all the files in a directory. If the available choices
do not fit in the viewable portion of the list box, a scroll bar allows
users to move up and down the list.
LMHOSTS: LMHOSTS name resolution allows the server to
resolve NetBIOS names by looking them up in a local database (the
LMHOSTS file) that maps NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. Contrast
with WINS and DNS.
local account: A user account provided in a domain for
a user whose global account is in a non-trusted domain. Not required
where trust relationships exist between domains. See also
global account and user account.
local area network: See LAN.
local boot: A process in which a client operating
system is loaded and started locally from disk. Contrast with
local computer: The workstation or server at which the
user or administrator is currently working. Contrast with
local group: For a backup domain controller, a user group that can be used to grant permissions and rights only for the servers of its own domain. A local group can contain user account names and global group names both from its own domain and from trusted domains. Local groups are a device for creating sets of users from both inside and outside the domain, to be used only at servers of the domain.
For a member server, a local group is one that can be granted permissions and rights only for the member server. However, it can contain user accounts from its own computer, and user accounts and global groups both from its own domain and from trusted domains. Local groups are a device for creating sets of users from both inside and outside the member server, to be used only at the member server.
See also global group and
local printer: A printer that is directly connected to
one of the ports on a computer.
local user: The user or administrator working at the
lockout: A security feature that disables a user
account if failed logon attempts exceed a specified limit.
log file: A history file. Advanced Server maintains a
system log and optionally enabled security and application logs.
log on: To provide a user name and password to gain
access to the network.
logical drive: On a PC, anything given a drive
designation (for example, G:) that is not physically located on the
logon domain: The domain specified when a user logs on
to the local area network.
logon hours: The days and times during which a user
can access a server's resources.
logon restrictions: The logon hours during which a
user can access a server's resources, and the workstations from which
the user can access those resources.
logon script: A batch program containing Advanced
Server and operating system commands used to configure workstations.
Logon scripts can be written for one or more users. When the user logs
on, the logon script is run.
logon script path: The path or location where the
logon script is stored, if a logon script is assigned to the user's
logon security: A means of verifying the identity of
users when they log on to the local area network or wide area network.
See also NetLogon service.
logon server: For a domain, the primary domain
controller and backup domain controllers. For a user, the server that
processes the user's logon request --- typically the server with the
lightest load. See also NetLogon service.
logon validation: A process of verifying the
identities of users when they log on to the network. See also
logon workstations: The workstations from which a user
is allowed to log on.
Master Browser: The system that maintains an
authoritative browse list (the set of information required for the
Browser service.) The Master Browser polls for domains, and builds and
updates a master browse list of its domain. One or more backup Browsers
send requests to the Master Browser to update their own lists.
maximum password age: The period of time a password
can be used before the system requires the user to change it. Set in
the account policy.
member server: A server in a domain that does not
store a copy of the domain's security accounts database and does not
validate logon requests. Member servers rely on domain controllers to
validate credentials of users requesting access to member server
shares. See also backup domain controller and
primary domain controller.
message forwarding: The method used to reroute
messages from one client or server to another.
minimum password age: The period of time a password
must be used before the user can change it. Set in the account policy.
Mixed-mode domain: A Windows 2000 domain that contains
both Windows 2000 domain controllers and Windows NT or Compaq
Advanced Server domain controllers. Contrast with
mount: To make a disk available as a shared disk to
users on a network.
multi-master domain controller model: The model of
domain security management implemented by pure Windows 2000
environments. Changes to the security accounts database can be made on
any domain controller. Any domain controller can be the replicator,
sending copies of the updated security accounts database to the other
domain controllers. This model contrasts with the primary/backup domain
controller model used by the Advanced Server and Windows NT Servers, in
which changes must be made on the primary domain controller first,
which replicates the changes to the backups.
named pipe: An interprocess communication mechanism
that allows one process to communicate with another local or remote
Native-mode domain: A Windows 2000 domain whose domain
controllers are Windows 2000 systems exclusively. Contrast
with Mixed-mode domain.
NetLogon service: Performs authentication of domain
logons, and keeps the domain's database synchronized between the
primary domain controller and the backup domain controllers in the
domain. See also security accounts database.
NetBEUI: A network transport on the Advanced Server. The
term NetBEUI is derived from NetBIOS Extended User Interface.
NetBIOS: Network Basic I/O System interface device
driver and transport interface developed by Microsoft and IBM, that
allows applications on different computers to communicate within a
local area network. In a wide area network, the Advanced Server can use
NetBIOS with TCP/IP (in conjunction with LMHOSTS, WINS, or DNS for name
resolution) to enable applications to communicate over the network.
network: A group of servers, clients, and devices
connected to each other by communications lines in order to share
information and resources.
network adapter (or network controller or network interface
card): A combination of hardware, firmware, and software that
controls the transmission and reception of data between a workstation
or server and the network.
network controller: See network
network directory: See shared
network path: The computer name of a server followed
by the share name of a shared resource and, optionally, a relative
path. See also Universal Naming Convention.
node: An individual computer, such as a server or
client, that can communicate with other computers in a network.
NOS: Network Operating System. See
NT File System (NTFS): Windows NT file system. A file
system designed for use specifically within the Windows NT operating
object type: An entity shared by the server, such as a
file, directory, or printer.
ODS-2: The traditional OpenVMS file system (On-Disk
Structure), which is based on the Files-11 disk structure.
ODS-5: The optional extended file system supported on
OpenVMS systems (beginning with Version 7.2) which provides Extended
File Specifications and deep directories.
On-Disk Structure (ODS): The structure of applications
and files maintained by the Advanced Server.
OpenVMS Registry: A system-wide hierarchical database
of configuration information about hardware and software (both the
operating system and applications). The Advanced Server for OpenVMS software relies
on the OpenVMS Registry to store and reference server configuration
parameters. In previous versions of the server software --- for
example, PATHWORKS for OpenVMS servers --- the LANMAN.INI file is used
to store server parameters. The OpenVMS Registry is similar to the
Windows NT Registry. See also server configuration
operator privilege: The privilege granted to a user
that allows the user to perform certain administrative tasks.
partial synchronization: Domain synchronization in
which the primary domain controller replicates to a backup domain
controller only those elements in their domain databases (security
databases) that have been changed since the last time a domain
synchronization occurred. See also domain
synchronization and full synchronization.
partition: A virtual division of a physical disk that
functions as though it were a physically separate unit.
pass-through authentication: In a trust relationship,
a user with an account in one domain can access resources provided by
another domain that trusts the user's domain. See also
path: Specifies the location of a file within the
directory structure. For example, to specify the path of a file in the
WINDOWS directory on drive C, a user types C:\WINDOWS\.
path name: A path that ends in a file name. A path
specifies a directory; a path name specifies a file. For example, to
specify the path name of a file named README.WRI located in the WINDOWS
directory on drive C, a user types C:\WINDOWS\README.WRI.
pause: To suspend a service. When a service is paused,
current requests are not stopped, but new requests are not allowed.
PC: Personal computer. See
permissions: Settings that define the type of access a
user has, and the actions a user can take, with regard to specific
objects. Permissions apply to these types of objects: shares, printers,
directories and the files in them. Special access combines permissions
for directory and file access.
personal share: A share typically used for sharing a
user's OpenVMS login directory, pointing to the root directory of the
user's OpenVMS account. Personal shares are unique in that they are
hidden shares (they will not appear in the list of shares users can
display, such as in Network Neighborhood), but their names do not end
with a dollar sign ($). Thus, when a user wishes to map a drive to
their OpenVMS login directory, they specify their personal share name
(typically the same as their username) without having to include a
dollar sign in the share name. See also shared
personal computer: See
pipe: See named pipe.
port: A connection or socket used to connect a device,
such as a printer, monitor, or modem, to a computer.
primary domain controller (PDC): The server that
maintains the master copy of the domain's security accounts database.
The primary domain controller also validates logon requests.
Contrast with backup domain controller,
printer driver: A program that controls how a computer
and printer interact. See also device driver.
printer fonts: Fonts that are built into a printer.
These fonts are usually located in the printer's read-only memory (ROM).
print queue: A list of print jobs waiting to be sent
to a printer or pool of printers. The Advanced Server print queue can be
either a printer queue or routing queue. See also
printer queue, routing queue.
printer queue: A print queue that points directly to a
physical printer. It is equivalent to an OpenVMS execution queue.
See also print queue. Contrast with
print share: See shared
priority level: An attribute assigned to each print
queue that determines which job is processed first when several queues
are trying to access the same printer at the same time.
privilege: See user
privilege level: A characteristic of a user group that
defines the range of actions that members can perform on the network.
See also permissions.
Product Authorization Key (PAK): The vehicle for
delivering Compaq product licenses. A PAK authorizes the use of
the licensed software, identifies the license type, and represents
either one or multiple licenses.
profile: See user profile.
program file: A file that starts an application or
program group: A collection of applications on a PC.
Grouping applications makes them easier to find when a user wants to
program-item icon: An application, accessory, or
document represented as an icon in a group window on a PC.
protocol: A set of rules that governs the format and
timing of messages sent and received over a communications link. For
example, DECnet and TCP/IP are network protocols. See also
radio button: In a dialog box, an indicator that the
user can select or clear, where only one selection is allowed.
Contrast with check box.
record management services (RMS): An OpenVMS file
management system that offers more sophisticated features than the
default system. RMS supports three forms of file organization and three
forms of file access. See also On-Disk
refresh: To update displayed information with current
Registry server: The OpenVMS Registry server controls
all OpenVMS Registry operations, such as creating and backing up the
OpenVMS Registry database, and creating, displaying, modifying, or
deleting keys and values. See also OpenVMS
remote administration: Administration of one computer
by an administrator logged on at another computer that is connected to
the first computer across the network.
remote boot: The process by which a client's operating
system is loaded and started remotely from a server's disk.
Contrast with local boot.
Remote Boot service: A LAN Manager service that
provides software support for starting workstations over the local area
remote computer: A server or workstation that is
available over the network. Contrast with local
remote procedure call (RPC): A call from a distributed
application for services available on various computers in a network.
An RPC is used during remote administration of computers.
replication: See directory
resource: Any disk drive or directory, printer, modem,
image scanner, or other object that a server can share over a network.
See also shared resource.
revision level: A revision identifier that is built
into many Advanced Server structures, such as security descriptors and
access control lists (ACLs). This identifier enables a structure to be
passed between systems or stored on disk even though it is expected to
change in the future.
rights: Authorization of a user to perform certain
actions on the system. Rights apply to users and groups on a
system-wide basis and are different from permissions, which apply to
specific objects. Contrast with permissions.
routing queue: An Advanced Server print queue that
points to several printer queues to distribute printer workload among
several like printers. Equivalent to an OpenVMS generic queue. A print
job is routed to the first available printer through that printer's
queue. See print queue. Contrast
with printer queue.
SAM: Security account manager. An Advanced Server
protected subsystem that maintains the server security accounts
database. Includes security information (such as user account names and
passwords) and the settings of the security policies.
SAM database: See security accounts
scroll: To move through text or graphics (up, down,
left, or right) to see parts of the file that cannot fit on the screen.
scroll bar: A bar that appears at the right or bottom
edge of a window or list box that enables users to view contents that
are not completely visible. See also scroll.
security: A method of controlling access to network
security accounts database: The file that contains security information such as user accounts and passwords, and groups, and the settings of the security policies. This domain-wide database is stored on all domain controllers and used for logon validation. The master domain-wide security accounts database is stored on the primary domain controller; backup domain controllers store a copy of the master database. The backup domain controller copies are synchronized with the master copy on the primary domain controller. On the Advanced Server, the security accounts database is managed with the ADMINISTER command interface.
Also referred to as the SAM database, security
database, or domain database. See
also logon validation, Netlogon
security database: See security
security ID (SID): A unique value that identifies a
user to the security system. Security IDs (SIDs) can identify one user
or a group of users. Server SIDs identify servers within the network,
enabling the network to recognize the primary domain controller.
security log: A file that records security events.
See also event.
security policies: A selection of security models. For
an Advanced Server domain, the security policies consist of the
Account, User Rights, Audit, and Trust Relationships policies.
security token: See access
separator page: One or more cover sheets generated
before a print job; also called a banner page.
server: A computer on the network that provides access
to resources such as files, printers, and communications devices.
Contrast with client.
server configuration parameters: Parameter names used
by the Advanced Server to define certain aspects of the server
configuration. The Advanced Server for OpenVMS server configuration parameters are
stored in the OpenVMS Registry. Previous versions of the server
software --- for example, PATHWORKS for OpenVMS servers --- use the
LANMAN.INI file to store server parameters.
Server service: The Advanced Server software component
that enables a computer to share resources on the network and that
provides administrators with tools for controlling and monitoring
server-based license: A license assigned on a
first-come, first-served basis that allows a client to access the
resident file server only. Often referred to as a "concurrent
use" license. Contrast with client-based
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