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HP OpenVMS Programming Concepts Manual

HP OpenVMS Programming Concepts Manual

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16.3.2 Overview of Locking Buffers

Before the I/O subsystem can move any data into a user buffer, either by moving data from system space in a buffered I/O, or by allowing a direct I/O operation, it must ensure that the user buffer actually exists and is accessible.

For buffered I/O, this is usually achieved by assuming the context of the process requesting the I/O and probing the target buffer. For most QIO requests, this happens at IPL 2 (IPL$_ASTDEL), which ensures that no AST can execute between the buffer probing and the moving of the data. The buffer is not deleted until the whole operation has completed. IPL 2 also allows the normal paging mechanisms to work while the data is copied.

For direct I/O, this is usually achieved by locking the target pages for I/O. This makes the pages that make up the buffer ineligible for paging or swapping. From there on the I/O subsystem identifies the buffer by the page frame numbers, the byte offset within the first page, and the length of the I/O request.

This method allows for maximum flexibility because the process can continue to page and can even be swapped out of the balance set while the I/O is still outstanding or active. No pages need to be locked for buffered I/O, and for direct I/O, most of the process pages can still be paged or swapped. However, this flexibility comes at a price: all pages involved in an I/O must be probed or locked and unlocked for every single I/O. For applications with high I/O rates, the operating system can spend a significant amount of time on these time-consuming operations.

Buffer objects can help avoid much of this overhead.

16.3.3 Overview of Buffer Objects

A buffer object is a process entity that is associated with a virtual address range within a process. When the buffer object is created, all pages in this address range are locked in memory. These pages cannot be freed until the buffer object has been deleted. The Fast I/O environment uses this feature by locking the buffer object itself during $IO_SETUP. This prevents the buffer object and its associated pages from being deleted. The buffer object is unlocked during $IO_CLEANUP. This replaces the costly probe, lock, and unlock operations with simple checks validating that the I/O buffer does not exceed the buffer object. The trade-off is that the pages associated with the buffer object are permanently locked in memory. An application may need more physical memory but it can then execute faster.

To control this type of access to the system's memory, a user must hold the VMS$BUFFER_OBJECT_USER identifier, and the system allows only a certain number of pages locked for use in buffer objects. This number is controlled by the dynamic SYSGEN parameter MAXBOBMEM.

A second buffer object property allows Fast I/O to perform several I/O-related tasks entirely from system context at high IPL, without having to assume process context. When a buffer object is created, the system maps by default a section of system space (S2) to process pages associated with the buffer object. This system space window is protected to allow read and write access only from kernel mode. Because all of system space is equally accessible from within any context, it is now possible to avoid the still expensive context switch to assume the original user's process context.

The convenience of having system space access to buffer object pages comes at a price. For example, even though S2 space usually measures several gigabytes, this may still be insufficient if several gigabytes of database cache should be shared for Fast I/O by many processes. In such an environment all or most I/O to or from the cache buffers is direct I/O, and the system space mapping is not needed.

Buffer objects can be created with or without an associated system space window. Resources used by buffer objects are charged as follows:

For more information about using Fast I/O features, see the HP OpenVMS I/O User's Reference Manual.

16.3.4 Creating and Using Buffer Objects

When creating and using buffer objects, you must be aware of the following:

16.4 Shared Page Tables

Shared page tables enable two or more processes to map to the same physical pages without each process incurring the overhead of page table construction, page file accounting, and working set quota accounting. Internally, shared page tables are treated as a special type of global section and are specifically used to map pages that are part of a memory-resident global section. The special global section that provides page table sharing is called a shared page table section. Shared page table sections themselves are memory resident.

Shared page tables are created and propagated to multiple processes by a cooperating set of system services. No special privileges or rights identifiers are required for a process or application to use shared page tables. The VMS$MEM_RESIDENT_USER rights identifier is required only to create a memory-resident global section. Processes that do not have this identifier can benefit from shared page tables (as long as certain mapping criteria prevail).

Similar to memory reserved for memory-resident global sections, memory for shared page tables must be deducted from the system's set of fluid pages. The Reserved Memory Registry allows for this deduction when a memory-resident global section is registered.

There are two types of shared page tables: those that allow write access and those that allow only read access. A given memory resident section can be associated with shared page tables that allow write access (the default for shared page tables), or the shared page tables can allow only read access. If most accessors need write access, the shared page tables should allow that. However, some applications might allow only write access to one process and have many reading processes. In that case, the shared page table should allow only read access and the writer can use private page tables. The flag SEC$M_READ_ONLY_SHPT can be set in $CREATE_GDZRO or $CRMPSC_GDZRO_64 to select shared page tables for read-only access.

16.4.1 Memory Requirements for Private Page Tables

Table 16-1 highlights the physical memory requirements for private page tables and shared page tables that map to various sizes of global sections by various numbers of processes. This table illustrates the amount of physical memory saved systemwide through the use of shared page tables. For example, when 100 processes map to a 1 GB global section, 99 MB of physical memory are saved by mapping to the global section with shared page tables.

Overall system performance benefits from this physical memory savings because of the reduced contention for the physical memory system resource. Individual processes benefit from the reduction of working set usage by page table pages, thus allowing a process to keep more private code and data in physical memory.

Table 16-1 Page Table Size Requirements
Number of Size of Global Section
Mapping 8MB 8MB 1GB 1GB 8GB 8GB 1TB 1TB
1 8KB 8KB 1MB 1MB 8MB 8MB 1GB 1GB
10 80KB 8KB 10MB 1MB 80MB 8MB 10GB 1GB
100 800KB 8KB 100MB 1MB 800MB 8MB 100GB 1GB
1000 8MB 8KB 1GB 1MB 8GB 8MB 1TB 1GB

PPT = Private Page Tables
SHPT = Shared Page Tables

16.4.2 Shared Page Tables and Private Data

To benefit from shared page tables, a process does not require any special privileges or rights identifiers. Only the creator of a memory-resident global section requires the rights identifier VMS$MEM_RESIDENT_USER. The creation of the memory-resident global section causes the creation of the shared page tables that map that global section unless the Reserved Memory Registry indicates that no shared page tables are required. At first glance, it may appear that there is a security risk inherent in allowing this greater level of data sharing. There is no security risk for the reasons described in this section.

An application or process that maps to a memory-resident global section with shared page tables must take the following steps:

  1. Create a shared page table region by calling the system service SYS$CREATE_REGION_64.
    The starting virtual address of the region is rounded down and the length is rounded up such that the region starts and ends on an even page table page boundary.
  2. Use either the SYS$CRMPSC_GDZRO_64 system service or the SYS$MGBLSC_64 system service to map to a memory-resident global section. These services enable the caller to use the shared page tables associated with the global section if the following conditions are met:

A shared page table region can only map memory-resident global sections. An application can map more than one memory-resident global section into a shared page table region. The starting virtual address for global sections mapped into a shared page table region are always rounded to a page table page boundary. This prevents two distinct global sections from sharing the same page table page. Attempts to create virtual address space in a shared page table region with any other system service except those listed in Step 2 will fail.


Processes can specify a non-shared page table region for mapping to a memory- resident global section with shared page tables. In this case, process private page tables are used to map to the global section.

16.5 Expandable Global Page Table

The GBLPAGES system parameter defines the size of the global page table. The value stored in the parameter file is used at boot time to establish the initial size of the global page table.

The system parameters GBLPAGES and GBLPAGFIL are dynamic parameters. Users with the CMKRNL privilege can change their effective values on the running system. Increasing the value of the GBLPAGES parameter at runtime allows the global page table to expand, on demand, up to the new maximum size. All the following conditions must be met for the global page table to expand or grow:

Because the global page table is mapped in 64-bit S2 space, which is a minimum of 6 GB on Alpha (S2 space on I64 is always 8 TB minus 2 GB), these conditions can be met by almost all systems. Only extremely memory-starved systems or systems with applications making extensive use of S2 virtual address space may make it impossible to grow the global page table on demand.

Because global pages are a system resource that also affects other tuning parameters, HP recommends using AUTOGEN and rebooting systems to increase GBLPAGES. If a reboot is not possible for operational reasons, you can change the parameter on the running system using the following commands:


The WRITE ACTIVE command requires the CMKRNL privilege.

The same commands also allow you to reduce the effective size of the global page table. The global page table is actually reduced and full pages are released to the system as fluid pages under the following conditions:

Reducing the active value of GBLPAGES below the number of currently used global pages does not affect currently used global pages. It only prevents the creation of additional global pages.

Increasing the active value of the GBLPAGFIL parameter always succeeds, up to the maximum positive integer value. As with GBLPAGES, reducing the value of GBLPAGFIL below the number of global pages that may be paged against the system's pagefile has no effect on these pages. Doing so simply prevents the creation of additional global pagefile sections.

Note that an increase of GBLPAGFIL may also require that additional pagefile space be satisfied by installing an additional pagefile.

Part 4
OpenVMS Programming Interfaces: Calling a System Routine

This part describes the basic calling format for OpenVMS routines and system services. It also describes the STARLET structures and definitions for C programmers.

Chapter 17
Call Format to OpenVMS Routines

This chapter describes the format used to document system routine calls and explains where to find and how to interpret information about routine calls. Subsequent chapters provide more specific information about calling run-time library (RTL) routines and system services.


The documentation format described in this chapter is generic; portions of it are used or not used, as appropriate, in the following OpenVMS manuals that document system routines:
HP OpenVMS System Services Reference Manual: A--GETUAI
HP OpenVMS System Services Reference Manual: GETUTC--Z
OpenVMS Run-Time Library manuals
OpenVMS Utility Routines Manual
OpenVMS Record Management Services Reference Manual

17.1 Overview

This chapter provides additional explanations for the following documentation categories for routines:

However, some main categories in the routine format contain information requiring no explanation beyond that given in Table 17-1.

Table 17-1 Main Headings in the Documentation Format for System Routines
Main Heading Description
Routine Name Always present. The routine entry point name appears at the top of the first page. It is usually followed by the English text name of the routine.
Routine Overview Always present. Appears directly below the routine name and briefly explains what the routine does.
Format Always present. Follows the routine overview and gives the routine entry point name and the routine argument list.
Returns Always present. Follows the routine format and explains what information is returned by the routine.
Arguments Always present. Follows the Returns heading and gives detailed information about each argument. If a routine takes no arguments, the word None appears.
Description Optional. Follows the Arguments heading and contains information about specific actions taken by the routine: interaction between routine arguments, if any; operation of the routine within the context of OpenVMS; user privileges needed to call the routine, if any; system resources used by the routine; and user quotas that might affect the operation of the routine.

Note that any restrictions on the use of the routine are always discussed first in the Description section. For example, any required user privileges or necessary system resources are explained first.

For some simple routines, a Description section is not necessary because the routine overview provides the needed information.

Condition Values
Always present. Follows the Description section and lists the condition values (typically status or completion codes) that are returned by the routine.
Example Optional. Follows the Condition Values Returned heading and contains one or more programming examples that illustrate how to use the routine, followed by an explanation.

All examples under this heading are complete. They have been tested and should run when compiled (or assembled) and linked. Throughout the manuals that document system routines, examples are provided in as many different programming languages as possible.

17.2 Format Heading

The following three types of information can be present in the format heading:

On VAX processors, all system routines have a procedure call format, but few system routines have JSB formats. If a routine has a JSB format, the format always appears after the routine's procedure call format.

17.2.1 Procedure Call Format

Procedure call formats can appear in many forms. The following four formats illustrate the meaning of syntactical elements, such as brackets and commas. General rules of syntax governing how to use procedure call formats are shown in Table 17-2.

Table 17-2 General Rules of Syntax for Procedure Call Formats
Element Syntax Rule
Entry point names Entry point names are always shown in uppercase characters.
Argument names Argument names are always shown in lowercase characters.
Spaces One or more spaces are used between the entry point name and the first argument, and between each argument.
Braces ({}) Braces surround two or more arguments. You must choose one of the arguments.
Brackets ([]) Brackets surround optional arguments. Note that commas can also be optional (see the comma element). Note that programming language syntax for optional arguments differs between languages. Refer to your language user's guide for more information.
Commas (,) Between arguments, the comma always follows the space. If the argument is optional, the comma might appear either inside or outside the brackets, depending on the position of the argument in the list and on whether surrounding arguments are optional or required.
Null arguments A null argument is a placeholding argument. It is used for one of the following reasons: (1) to hold a place in the argument list for an argument that has not yet been implemented by HP but might be in the future; or (2) to mark the position of an argument that was used in earlier versions of the routine but is not used in the latest version (upward compatibility is thereby ensured because arguments that follow the null argument in the argument list keep their original positions). A null argument is always given the name nullarg.

In the argument list constructed when a procedure is called, both null arguments and omitted optional arguments are represented by argument list entries containing the value 0. The programming language syntax required to produce argument list entries containing 0 differs from language to language. See your language user's guide for language-specific syntax.

Format 1

This format illustrates the standard representation of optional arguments and best describes the use of commas as delimiters. Arguments enclosed within square brackets are optional. In most languages, if an optional argument other than a trailing optional argument is omitted, you must include a comma as a delimiter for the omitted argument.

ROUTINE_NAME arg1[, [arg2][, arg3]]

Typically, OpenVMS RMS system routines use this format when a maximum of three arguments appear in the argument list.

Format 2

When the argument list contains three or more optional arguments, the syntax does not provide enough information. If you omit the optional arguments arg3 and arg4 and specify the trailing argument arg5, you must use commas to delimit the positions of the omitted arguments.

ROUTINE_NAME arg1, [arg2], nullarg, [arg3], [arg4], arg5

Typically, system services, utility routines, and run-time library routines contain call formats with more than three arguments.

Format 3

In the following call format, the trailing four arguments are optional as a group; that is, you specify either arg2, arg3, arg4, and arg5, or none of them. Therefore, if you do not specify the optional arguments, you need not use commas to delimit unoccupied positions.

However, if you specify a required argument or a separate optional argument after arg5, you must use commas when arg2, arg3, arg4, and arg5 are omitted.

ROUTINE_NAME arg1[, arg2, arg3, arg4, arg5]

Format 4

In the following example, you can specify arg2 and omit arg3. However, whenever you specify arg3, you must specify arg2.

ROUTINE_NAME arg1[, arg2[, arg3]]

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