Document revision date: 15 July 2002
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OpenVMS User's Manual

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qualifier: A portion of a command string that modifies a command verb or command parameter by selecting one of several options. A qualifier, if present, follows the command verb or parameter to which it applies and is in the format /qualifier[=option]. For example, in the command string "PRINT filename /COPIES=3," the COPIES qualifier indicates that the user wants three copies of a given file printed.

queue: Either of the following:

  1. A line of jobs to be processed; for example, a batch job queue or a printer job queue. Processing occurs primarily in first-in/first-out (FIFO) order, but does reflect the priority of the process that submitted the job. See also print queue.
  2. To add an entry in a list or table, often by using the INSQUE instruction.

random access: A method for retrieving or writing data in which the location of the data to be retrieved or written is not dependent on the location of previously retrieved or written data. Random access refers to memory or mass storage devices on which all information is equally accessible.

read: The act or capability of an image to accept data. For example, when a TYPE command is issued, the system reads the designated file from disk and writes it to the terminal. See also write.

record file address (RFA): The unique address of a record in a file. The RFA allows previously accessed records to be accessed randomly at a subsequent time. This access occurs regardless of the file organization.

Record Management Services (RMS): See RMS (Record Management Services).

record-oriented device: A device such as a terminal, line printer, or card reader. A record-oriented device's physical record is the largest unit of data that a program can access in one I/O operation.

record sorting: A sorting process in which records are kept intact and an output file consisting of complete records is produced.

relative file organization: The arrangement of records in a file in which each record occupies a cell of equal length within a bucket. Each cell is assigned a successive number, which represents its position relative to the beginning of the file.

remote node: Any node in a network, other than the node that you are currently logged in to.

restricted account: A type of OpenVMS account with a secure login procedure. The user is not allowed to use the Ctrl/Y key sequence during the system or process login command procedure. Control may be turned over to the user following execution of the login command procedures.

reverse video: A feature of a video terminal that reverses the default video contrast. If the default display is black figures on a white background, reverse video displays white figures on a black background.

RMS (Record Management Services): A set of operating system procedures that are called by programs to process files and records within files. RMS allows programs to issue GET and PUT requests at the record level (record I/O) as well as read and write blocks (block I/O). RMS is an integral part of the system software; its procedures run in executive mode.

scrolling: A feature of a video terminal that allows the display of more than one screen of text by vertical movement. For example, when the TYPE command is entered, new output appears at the bottom of the screen as the oldest output disappears off the top.

secondary password: A user password that may be required at login time immediately after the primary password has been submitted correctly. Primary and secondary passwords can be known by separate users to ensure that more than one user is present at the login. A less common use is to require a secondary password as a means of increasing the password length so that the total number of combinations of characters makes password guessing more time-consuming and difficult.

secure terminal server: OpenVMS software designed to ensure that users can log in only to terminals that are already logged out. When the user presses the Break key on a terminal, the secure terminal server (if enabled) responds by first disconnecting any logged-in process and then initiating a login. If no process is logged in at the terminal, the login can proceed immediately.

sequential access mode: The retrieval or storage of records in which a program reads or writes records one after the other in the order in which they appear, starting and ending at any arbitrary point in the file.

sequential file organization: A file organization in which records appear in the order in which they were originally written. The records can be fixed or variable length. Records can be accessed sequentially or randomly by record address. Fixed length records can also be accessed randomly by relative record number.

simple character: A base character set that can be used for all the components of a file specification except the version.

software: The collection of images, procedures, rules, and documentation associated with the operation of a particular computer system. For example, the operating system is software.

specification file: A command file used in the Sort/Merge utility to specify the commands and qualifiers needed to complete a sort operation.

start position qualifier: In EVE, a qualifier you can use to determine the row and column where the cursor first appears in the buffer you specify.

string: A connected sequence of characters. When a text editor searches for a word or phrase in a text file, it is looking for a string. The character sequence that forms a command is often called a command string.

subdirectory: A directory file, cataloged in a higher level directory, that lists additional files belonging to the owner of the directory.

subprocess: A subsidiary process created by another process. The process that creates a subprocess is its owner. A process and its subprocesses share a pool of quotas and limits. When an owner process is removed from the system, all its subprocesses (and their subprocesses) are also removed.

subroutine: A subsidiary routine that executes when called by another program. A subroutine is often called repeatedly until a certain condition is met.

symbol: An entity that, when defined, represents a particular function or entity (for example, a command string, directory name, or file name) in a particular context.

symbol scope: The set of command procedure levels from within which the symbol can be accessed.

syntax: The particular form of a command, including the spelling and the order of qualifiers and parameters. Misspelled words are the most common syntax errors.

system login command procedure: A procedure that lets your system manager ensure that certain commands are always executed when you log in.

system manager: The person who makes resources available to users and sets up restrictions governing the use of such resources.

system password: A password required by a terminal before login can be initiated.

terminal: The general name for a peripheral device that has a keyboard and a video screen or printer. Under program control, a terminal enables users to type commands and data from the keyboard and receive messages on the video screen or printer.

timeout: The expiration of the time limit during which a device is to complete an I/O transfer.

timestamp: A text string that fully specifies a data and time. For example, 11-DEC-1996 17:13:21.

UAF (user authorization file): The file that holds details of each account on the system. The UAF contains the user name, password, user identification code (UIC), quotas, limits, and privileges assigned to each account.

UFD (user file directory): A file that briefly catalogs a set of files stored on disk or tape. The UFD includes the name, type, and version number of each file in the set. It also contains a unique number that identifies that file's actual location and points to a list of its file attributes. See also directory.

UIC (user identification code): The pair of numbers assigned to users, files, global sections, command event flag clusters, and mailboxes. The UIC specifies the type of access (read, write, or read/write, and in the case of files, execute, delete, or both) available to the owner, group, world, and system.

user authorization file (UAF): See UAF (user authorization file).

user password: A password that is associated with a user. This password must be correctly supplied when the user attempts to log in so that the user is approved for access to the system. The two types of user passwords are primary and secondary; the terms also represent the sequence in which they are entered.

utility: A program that provides a set of related general-purpose functions, such as a program development utility (an editor, a linker), a file management utility (file copy or file format translation program), or an operations management utility (disk quotas, diagnostic program).

version number: The numeric component of a file specification. When a file is edited, its version number is increased by one.

video terminal: A keyboard and a video screen (or monitor) to display your interactions with the operating system. See also terminal.

volume: A mass storage media such as a disk pack or reel of magnetic tape. The volume is the largest logical unit of the file structure.

volume set: The file-structured collection of data residing on one or more mass storage media.

wildcard character: A nonalphanumeric character such as an asterisk (*) or percent sign (%) that is used within, or in place of, a file name, a file type, a directory name, or a version number in a file specification to indicate "all" for the given field.

write: The act or capability of an image to send data. For example, when a PRINT command is issued, the specified file is read from wherever it is stored and is written to the printer. See also read.

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